In most systems where mate selection exists, one sex tends to compete with members of the same sex, while the opposite sex is picky (meaning they are picky about who they choose to mate with). There are direct and indirect benefits to being selective. In most species, females are the picky sex and can distinguish competing males, but there are several examples of roles being reversed. Individuals do best to choose compatible mates of the same species to maintain reproductive success. Other factors that may influence mate choice are pathogen stress and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).
Females tend to be the more selective sex due to the difference in investment in gametes between the sexes. Building on this concept, we study mate choice in a large carnivore: the brown bear (Ursus arctos). We hypothesize that females in this sexually selected infanticide (SSI) species may face a dilemma: either choose high-quality mates based on phenotypic criteria suggested by mate-choice theory, or prefer to settle with potentially infanticidal future partners Mating with males as a counter-strategy for SSI. We assessed which masculine characteristics are important in specifying parentage. Among the available males close to the female, the largest, most heterozygous, less inbred male, and the geographically closest male, were more likely to father the female’s next litter. We propose that female brown bears select the male closest to them as a counter-infanticide strategy and make cryptic post-coital choices based on physical traits such as physical traits. B. The body is large, reflecting the male genetic quality. However, male competition, either in the form of pre-mating fighting or post-mating sperm competition, cannot be completely ruled out.
In humans, males and females have different strategies for finding a mate. Women show more selectivity than men in choosing a mate. According to Bateman’s principle, human females show less variation in their lifetime reproductive success due to their highly compulsive parental investment. Sexual selection in human females is indicated by sexual dimorphism, especially in traits of little other evolutionary purpose, such as the presence of beards, an overall lower pitch and larger average body size in males. Women reportedly prefer men with beards and deep voices. The most important traits in female mate selection are parental investment, provision of resources, and good genes for offspring. Both women and men can find a mate in short order. This could give them resources; provide genetic benefits, as demonstrated by the sexy-son hypothesis; facilitate desired separation; and allow them to assess a partner’s suitability as a long-term partner. Women prefer long-term partners over short-term ones because pregnancy and breastfeeding give them a greater investment in their children. Factors influencing female mate choice included female attractiveness, female personal resources, mate duplication, and parasite pressure. Romantic love is a long-term mate-selection mechanism for human females.
Partner selection is also influenced by supply and demand. Where there are significant differences in the number of available mates of the desired sex, mate choice may become more selective, or lead people to settle for a less desirable mate than they would like.
Female choice is more common than male choice because women’s investment in procreation makes them a valuable resource for men and allows them to choose among many potential mates. The result of evolution is to exaggerate the masculine characteristics on which women choose mates. In many species, traits such as those shown in Figure 1 indicate a male’s physical or genetic fitness, or serve as indicators of his ability to make parental investments (e.g., foraging vigor). Male birds with elaborate, colorful plumage or more complex songs are more likely to be selected as mates than their duller counterparts, because these traits provide females with information about the male’s immune system and physical health. The former has a heritable component, so offspring born to healthy males have a lower mortality rate. Males who are sick or cannot tolerate high levels of testosterone (which can suppress the immune system) cannot develop these traits and are therefore not selected for mates.
Mate choice is a complex process influenced by biology as well as culture and environment. Depending on your hormones, life stage, and self-assessment, you look for a long-term or short-term partner or a combination of both. Overall, women seem to prefer long-term relationships but still engage in short-term pairings. While most men end up in long-term relationships, most men seem to prefer short-term pairings. These types of choices are also influenced by the sex ratio of available mates to same-sex competitors. A strategy becomes preferable depending on the number of available partners who respond to the strategy and the lack of many competitors of the same sex using the strategy. Recent speed-dating studies have shown that the differences between men and women are smaller than those found in previous studies using other methods, such as self-reporting. However, whether this finding can be replicated in populations with greater diversity in attractiveness and SES remains to be seen.